The Anthropological Society of South Australia was established in June 1926. Its founding members included Dr R Pulleine (President), Prof. F Wood Jones (see AA 379), Dr TD Campbell (see AA 52) and CP Mountford (committee members, see AA 228) and NB Tindale (secretary, see AA 338). Many other individuals who later became prominent in the study of South Australian and Australian archaeology and anthropology, such as Prof. JB Cleland (see AA 60), Dr HK Fry (see AA 105), Prof. TH Johnston (see AA 161), TGH Strehlow (see AA 316) and Dr PS Hossfeld (see AA 140), were also members of the Society in the 1920s and 1930s.The aims of the Society were the study of the Australian Aboriginal people and to encourage the collection of information on their habits and customs. During the first few years of its operation, the Society's activities seem to have been restricted mainly to monthly meetings where invited speakers discussed aspects of Aboriginal life and culture or showed ethnographic films. During this period the Society had a number of 'corresponding members' who were encouraged, via questionnaires, to provide information on Aboriginal customs and beliefs. The Society was initially affiliated with the University of Adelaide, but also had close links to the South Australian Museum.
The State Library of South Australia has a large collection of the Society's correspondence, minutes, notes, papers and manuscripts covering the period 1926-1981, accessioned as SRG 161.