This series contains restricted material.
This item consists of 34 wax cylinders recorded by Norman B Tindale and Henry K Fry during the University of Adelaide's Board for Anthropological Research expeditions to the Mann and Musgrave Ranges during May-August 1933.
On the first expedition, Tindale and Cecil J Hackett, a physical anthropologist, travelled in a westerly direction from Ernabella in the Musgrave Ranges to the Mann Ranges. According to a report on the expedition, Tindale managed to detail 'the song series relating to ten ceremonies' (Oceania V.4, 1933-34, p.105). It is important to note, however, that Tindale does not provide a clear indication of how many songs were actually recorded on wax cylinders as opposed to merely transcribed into the pages of his song notebooks and expedition field journal. Also lacking is a clear indication of the total number of wax cylinders recorded during the expedition.
One of main objectives of the first expedition was for Tindale and Hackett to contact Aboriginal people and to entice them to travel to Ernabella to become subjects for anthropometric and ethnological study during the second expedition, planned for August. Fry arrived at Ernabella with the second expedition party and, according to Tindale's written records, assisted with the recording of the songs of the Inma Ngintaka (see below). Otherwise, it appears, Tindale made the gramophone recordings himself. As with the first expedition, Tindale does not provide a clear indication of how many songs were actually recorded on wax cylinders as opposed to merely transcribed onto the pages of his song notebooks and field journal or the total number of wax cylinders recorded during the second expedition.
The S. A. Museum Speech and Sound Collections register lists 150 songs for the Mann and Musgrave Ranges expeditions (AS 73-233). It seems, however, that the information contained in this listing is not fully reliable. Some of the contents of the wax cylinders, for instance, do not appear in the Speech and Sound Collections register: the most conspicuous omissions are the speech records (AA 338/11/6/22-24, listed below). A further problem is that all of the song entries between AS 73-233 are indicated as being wax cylinder recordings, which appears to be an error. Although the total number of wax cylinder recordings made by Tindale is unknown, it appears most unlikely that cylinders were made for all of the approximately 150 texts in question.
The best documentary materials relating to the wax cylinders are Tindale's two expedition song notebooks: 'Mann Range (SA) Song Records (1933)' (AA 338/12/1/4) and 'Musgrave Range (SA) Song Records (1933)' (AA 338/12/1/5). The other main documentary source is 'Journal of an Anthropological Expedition to the Mann and Musgrave Ranges, North West of South Australia, May- July 1933, and a personal record of the Anthropological expedition to Ernabella, Aug. 1933, by Norman B. Tindale. Adelaide 1933' (AA 338/1/9). It should be noted that some of the descriptions appearing in the song notebooks and on the cylinder canisters do not appear in the field journal. That is to say, there is no one complete and reliable documentary source, rather there are a number of partial and overlapping written sources.
Tindale's preferred recording method involved making two recordings of each song, 'the first was played back to the aboriginal, who then again sang it. Such repeats have never been replayed, they are virgin, awaiting some sophisticated system of reproduction' (letter from Tindale to the Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 6 Feb 1975). Accordingly, cylinder contents listings often contain the letters 'T' and 'R' for 'trial' and 'repeat', respectively.
Transcriptions of songs are found in the expedition song notebooks (AA 338/12/1/4 and AA 338/12/1/5 and the field journal (AA 338/1/9). The qualities of the song transcriptions often vary: some songs are transcribed and translated into English, others are only partially transcribed or merely have an English gloss. Transcriptions are often accompanied by descriptions of performance and details of the ceremonies of which they are a part.
Owing to the nature of the ceremonies witnessed by Tindale, access to most of the songs contained within this item is restricted.
The following wax cylinders were recorded on the first expedition:
- Reel I: Ernabella 7.6.33. 'Song 1T & 1R. Snake song of Aparana'
[Track 1. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R1; Cyl. 1]
- Reel II: Ernabella 7.6.33. 'Song 2T repeat, spoiled'. 'Ilpindja song from Henbury country [NT]'
[Track 2. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R2; Cyl. 2]
- Reel III: Ernabella 7.6.33. 'Song 3. 3R comes before 3T. 3T has a flaw in it'. 'Inma Kunkarankalpana' [Seven Sisters] song
[Track 3. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R3; Cyl. 3]
- Reel IV: Ernabella 1933. 'Song 4R no trial available. 2nd half spoilt'. 'Ancestral song of Pitjinzara tribe'
[Track 4. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R4; Cyl. 4]
- Reel V: 'Song 5R, 5T'. 'Inma Kunkarankalpana' [Seven Sisters] song
[Track 5. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R5; Cyl. 5]
- Reel VI: 'Song 6T, 6R. Sunrise song Pitj[antjatj]ara Tribe'
[Track 6. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R6; Cyl. 6]
- Reel VII: 'Song 7T, TR, 8T'. 'Emu Dance, Kukata Tribe Song' & 'Song from Aparana'
[Track 7. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R7; Cyl. 7]
- Reel VIII: 'Song 9T, 9R'. Snake song [?] from Aparana
[Track 8. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R8; Cyl. 8]
- Reel IX: Mann Ra. 1933, 'ceremony'. 'Kangaroo ceremony series of songs'
[Track 9. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R9; Cyl. 9]
- Reel X: 'Mann Ra Exped'. Kangaroo ceremony
[Track 10. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R10; Cyl. 10]
- Reel XI: Canister lid reads: 'Mann Ra. Exped. Kangaroo Ceremony. Poor'. Card inside reads: 'George Ilpin[dj]a song, pelican song'
[Track 11. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R11; Cyl. 11]
- Reel XII: 'Mann Ra. Exp., Ernabella 1933'. Song from Wamapiti
[Track 12. Tape No. 9574; TT13; R12; Cyl. 12]
- Reel XIII: 'Mann Ra. Exped. Speech description of song on Reel XII.
[Track 13. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R1; Cyl. 13]
- 'Mann Range 1933. Original Test'
[Track 14. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R2; Cyl. (unnumbered-Ernabella)]
The following wax cylinders were recorded on the second expedition:
AA 338/11/6/ (on the Access CD, Track 1 includes preliminary information relating to the identifiers and Tracks 2-14 do not contain recordings.
- '2nd Exped. Aug 1933. Reel I'. Inma Inka. 2 songs [labelled reel II in song notebook]
[Track 15. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R3; Cyl. 1]
- '2nd Exped. Aug 1933. Reel II'. Two songs [labelled reel III in song notebook]
[Track 15. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R4; Cyl. (Reel 2-2nd Expedition]
- 'Songs 1-3 Keineke (native cat) 18.8.33'
[Track 16. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R5; Cyl. Native Cat? Ernabella]
- 'Ilpindja Erewandja or pelican song. 18.8.33. George Ilpindja'
[Track 17. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R6; Cyl. Pelican Ernabella]
- '2 play songs, Koko nala is sequel'
[Track 18. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R7; Cyl. Play songs Ernabella]
- '16.8.33. Inma il[j]i, kalaia, Wednesday night'
[Track 19. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R8; Cyl. Emu song-Mann Range Exp.]
- '16.8.33. Wednesday Inma Il[j]i (kalaia = emu)'
[Track 20. Tape No. 9575; TT14; R9; Cyl. Kalaya (Emu)-Mann Range Exp.]
- 'Watti Pampul. 1st part, 1st time through' [speech]
[Track 21. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R1; Cyl. Wati pampul-Mann Ranges]
- '2nd part Watti Pampul. Yabber Yabber talking' [speech]
[Track 22. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R2; Cyl. Wati pampul-Mann Ranges]
- 'Watti pampul part 3 to end. 133 talking after 1st part by no' [speech]
[Track 23. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R3; Cyl. Wati pampul-Mann Ranges]
- 'Inma Njintaka [Ngintaka] 3, 4, 5'
[Track 24. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R4; Cyl. Inma Njintaka]
- 'Inma Njintaka [Ngintaka] 6, 7, 7'
[Track 25. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R5; Cyl. Inma Njintaka]
- 'Inma Njintaka [Ngintaka] 6, 7'
[Track 26. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R6; Cyl. Inma Njintaka]
- 'Inma Ngintaka 7 repeat, 8 & 9 conjoined[?], 18.8.33'
[Track 27. Tape No. 9575; TT15; R7; Cyl. Inma Njintaka]
The following wax cylinders were recorded at Charlotte Waters (NT) 1926 or 1933:
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 1
[Track 28. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R1; Cylinder 1]
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 2
[Track 29. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R2; Cylinder 2]
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 3
[Track 30. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R3; Cylinder 3]
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 4
[Track 31. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R4; Cylinder 4]
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 5
[Track 32. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R5; Cylinder 5]
- Inma Ununtju, Southern Aranda play ceremony, reel 6
[Track 33. Tape No. 9566; TT3; R6; Cylinder 6]
The following songs are described in Tindale's Mann and Musgrave Ranges field journal (AA 338/1/9):
- songs 1-11: Women's dance, a corroboree from Winbaruko (Blanche Tower) performed at the Musgrave Ranges (11 songs, 8 June 1933)
- song 12: Inma laka tiŋari or inma kondala song (1 song, 22 June 1933)
- songs 13-19: Inma papa or dog ceremony (7 songs, 23 June 1933)
- songs 20-26: Inma malu or kangaroo inma (7 songs, 23 June 1933)
- songs 27-39: Inma papa tjanalkulja (13 songs, 23 June 1933)
- songs 40-77: Circumcision ceremony songs (38 songs, 23 June 1933)
- songs 78-80: Songs recorded while walking along (3 songs, 28 June 1933)
- songs 81-84: Songs associated with Itara (Mt Harcus) (4 songs, 3 July 1933)
- songs 85-86: Pira tjilpi songs (2 songs, 5 July 1933)
- songs 87-89: Inma iŋka or playabout corroboree (3 songs, 9 July 1933)
- songs 90-92: Inma laka Wardaruka songs (3 songs, 11 July 1933)
- song 93: Inma tjela (well ceremony) (1 song, 11 July 1933)
- song 94: Tjintjelelinba (bird) song (1 song, 16 July, 1933)
- song 95: Song sung at ceremony of Wati Jula and his dog, papa Kantju (1 song, 3 August 1933)
- song 96: Inma Malu (kangaroo ceremony) of Kurupuludjara song (1 song, 3 August 1933)
- song 97: Lanka (lizard) song (1 song, 5 August 1933)
- songs 98-123: Wati Pampul inma (26 songs, Ernabella 9 August 1933)
- songs 124-128: Playabout corroboree called inma njenta (5 songs, Ernabella 12 August 1933)
- songs 129-130: Inma Waiaŋgara of Winbaruka (Blanche Tower) songs (2 songs, Ernabella 12 August 1933)
- song 131: Song of the inma tjalpalpa of Porutjonga (1 song, Ernabella 14 August 1933)
- songs 132-150: Wati Kantjunja ceremony (19 songs, Ernabella 16 August 1933)
Finally, note that in general the actual language or cultural ownership of a particular song is not necessarily indicated in the catalogue descriptions provided in this series. In many cases, such comment awaits further work upon the collection. The following list of Tindale tribes is intended to be indicative rather than comprehensive.
Tindale Tribes: Pitjandjara; Jangkundjara; Kokata; Aranda; Pintubi.