This is the final film production documenting the Board for Anthropological Research (BAR) expedition to Warburton Range, Western Australia during 26 July - 6 September 1935. The expedition party included numerous BAR members.
The expedition party travelled on the East-West rail line to Laverton and the remaining 360 miles from Laverton to the Warburton Range (Latitude: 26o 5' Longitude: 126o 30') by motor vehicle. The BAR expedition base camp was situated at Warupuju. The film was shot by the cinematographer EO Stocker (AA 311). The expedition party included numerous BAR Members as well as two Australian Aboriginal informants Pitawara and Jack. See: 'Anthropological Expedition to Warburton Range, Western Australia by Norman B Tindale. July-September 1935.' (AA 338/1/14), p.25.
EO Stocker was the cinematographer and exposed approximately 3,900 feet of 16mm film, including 500 feet of colour film. The final film production consists of 2,475 feet of film, with intertitles. Tindale writes that it was hoped a sound track commentary of the film would be added at a later date, this did not eventuate.
The South Australian Museum Archives Master Preservation Tape (AA 346/9/10/29) consists of Reels 1 - 8 (AA 346/9/10/1 - AA 346/9/10/8), duration 1 hour 20 minutes 13 seconds.
The original master copies of the Warburton Range expedition film were processed in the BAR Film Catalogue as #B33 - #B40, and were previously held in the EO Stocker collection (AA 311) and was transferred into the BAR collection (AA 346) in December 2005.
The method adopted by BAR expeditions to undertake research and record the results involved assigning a unique number to each individual (here called 'individual subject number'). This number was given the expedition symbol as a prefix, and remained consistent throughout the research. This expedition was assigned the symbol 'K.' All individuals recorded during the expedition were assigned an individual subject number, for example [K27]. Where possible the 'individual subject number' of those who appear in film have been noted.
The time coded summary is in minutes and seconds. Following the summary of this film is a list of references. Formats Held: 16mm, SP Betacam, Digital Betacam, Access DVDs.
Summary (Time Coded): Taken from Access DVD 3 (AA 346/9/10/33)
00:00:00 Warburton Range, WA, 1935.
00:00:00 'Cultural Sensitivity Warning.'
00:00:00 'The Museum Board of South Australia © 1935.'
00:01:00 'University of Adelaide [#]33. Warburton Range Expedition Reel 1.'
00:01:04 '[#]33 End of Reel 1. Warburton Range Expedition.'
00:01:09 'Natives of the Warburton Range, Western Australia. 1935.'
00:01:14 'Recorded for Board of Anthropological Research, University of Adelaide by EO Stocker.'
00:01:22 Map of Australia.
00:01:28 Map of Australia with a progressive line outlining the BAR expedition route from Adelaide to the Warburton Ranges.
00:01:33 Expedition members walk next to their heavily loaded vehicle, near Minnie Creek.
00:01:37 Map of Australia, continuing to outline the route take by the BAR expedition to the Warburton Ranges.
00:01:40 BAR expedition members dig out their bogged vehicle, removing equipment to lighten the load.
00:02:23 The BAR vehicle continues on its journey.
00:02:33 Australian Aboriginal men remove small trees in the mulga scrub to assist the BAR expedition vehicles passage.
00:02:55 Pinkari [K27] of the Ngadadjara people helps clear the track of trees.
00:03:18 A large group of Australian Aboriginal men push the BAR vehicle up a steep embankment.
00:04:09 Restricted Content Starts.
00:04:36 Restricted Content Ends.
00:04:36 An Australian Aboriginal man draws with crayon on paper. See: (AA 338/5/14/145)
00:05:33 CJ Hackett (AA 122) give a group of Australian Aboriginal women mirrors.
00:05:59 A typical camp scene at evening near Warupuju waterhole. Women and children play with a litter of dingo pups they are rearing. See: (AA 338/1/14), p.189.
00:06:33 A group of Australian Aboriginal women drink at a waterhole.
00:06:48 Series of portraits of Australian Aboriginal women.
00:07:19 The women walk away from the waterhole.
00:07:27 'Juvenile hunters of birds.'
00:07:31 Australian Aboriginal children hiding in ambush near Warupuju Spring.
00:07:42 Birds (including finches, two species of doves, cockatoos and pigeons) come to drink at a pool of water.
00:08:58 A young Australian Aboriginal boy takes aim and throws a stick.
00:09:01 Three young Australian Aboriginal boys gather the two birds that they have killed.
00:09:08 The boys build a fire, pluck the feathers from the birds and proceed to cook them.
00:10:16 The birds are removed from the fire, cleaned, portioned and eaten.
00:11:03 'Gathering mako tjilka tjilka grubs from roly poly bushes (Salsola kali).'
00:11:09 The boys dig under roly poly bushes searching for mako tjilka tjilka grubs. See: (AA 338/1/14), p. 181.
00:11:37 One of the boys holds up a mako tjilka tjilka grub for the camera.
00:11:42 End of Warburton Range Reel 1 [No Intertitle]
00:11:44 'University of Adelaide. [#]34. Warburton Range Expedition Reel 2.'
00:11:48 'Kangaroo hunting.'
00:11:53 A group of Australian Aboriginal men set out in the early morning in search of kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).
00:12:11 Two Australian Aboriginal men discuss the plan for the hunt.
00:12:34 Pausing in the hunt to eat the berries of the species Solanum.
00:12:44 The hunt continues.
00:12:54 A kangaroo is spotted.
00:13:05 The men manoeuvre to a better position, where they stalk and spear the kangaroo.
00:14:36 Two men lift and carry the kill.
00:14:57 Making flakes of quartzite to prepare the carcass for transport.
00:15:07 The intestines are removed and the body cavity is trussed up with a wooden peg. The carcass is lashed for transport.
00:16:50 The carcass is carried to camp.
00:17:21 A narrow trench is dug and over which a fire is lit. See: (AA 338/1/14), p.207.
00:17:28 The tendons are cut and removed from the legs of the carcass.
00:18:28 The carcass is placed on the fire which has been lit over the trench.
00:18:48 The carcass is taken out of the fire, the singed fur removed and the tail and hind feet cut off.
00:19:15 The carcass is placed in the trench and covered with hot ashes.
00:20:50 The carcass is removed from the fire and placed on a bed of leaves where it is portioned.
00:21:38 The portions of meat are carried into the main camp, where further sharing takes place.
00:22:55 Women and children eating meat.
00:23:28 A young child is shown cutting open his portion of meat with an adze.
00:23:46 '[#]34. End of Reel 2. Warburton Range Expedition.'
00:23:52 'University of Adelaide. [#]35. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 3.'
00:23:56 'Opossum hunting.'
00:24:01 Two Australian Aboriginal youths set out in search of opossum (Trichosurus vulpecular). They find a hollow gum tree bearing scratched on the bark. The hand signal for opossum is given. See: (AA 338/1/14), p.189.
00:24:15 One of the youths climbs up the tree with a metal tomahawk and proceeds to open a hole in the trunk. A fire is lit at the base of the truck to smoke out the opossum.
00:25:16 Two opossums are removed from the tree trunk and killed.
00:25:43 A fire is made, an adze sharpened and the carcasses prepared for cooking.
00:27:05 The fur is singed off.
00:28:07 The carcasses are placed in a shallow trench and covered with hot ashes.
00:28:32 Removing and portioning the food.
00:29:23 'Method of cooking the goanna.'
00:29:28 Njipiri [K31] of the Ngadadjara people prepares to light a fire using the sharpened edge of a spear-thrower. He places shavings and animal dried dung in the split of a piece of native peach tree wood, which he proceeds to ignite by the friction of his spear-thrower.
00:30:22 A large goanna (Varanus) carcass.
00:30:25 The large lizard and another carcass is placed on the fire. See: (AA 338/1/14), pp.263-365.
00:30:51 Pealing the singed skin of the goanna.
00:31:12 Trussing up the carcass and placing it back in the ashes.
00:31:54 Removing and portioning and the food.
00:32:44 '[#]35 End of Reel 3. Warburton Range Expedition. '
00:32:52 'University of Adelaide. [#]36. Warburton Range Expedition Reel 4.'
00:32:56 'Native women in their daily search for food.'
00:33:02 Two Australian Aboriginal women and their children set out to obtain food in the Warupuju soak. One of the women finds a species of red scaled-insects (Coccidae) on a mulga tree (Acacia aneura). She gathers a quantity of braches which a covered with these insects.
00:33:43 The branches are rolled in a bark dish filled with water. This makes a sugary liquid which she drinks. See: (AA 338/1/14), p.129.
00:34:37 An Australian Aboriginal woman breastfeeds her child.
00:34:31 'The manufacture of yam sticks and their use.'
00:34:37 An Australian Aboriginal woman chops down a small mulga tree with a metal tomahawk borrowed from the expedition party. All small branches are removed from the main stick. See: (AA 338/1/14), pp.127-129.
00:35:40 Obtaining a second small mulga tree for a digging stick.
00:35:53 On returning to camp the women start to prepare the digging stick. The lower extremity of the stick is placed against burning coals. The charred end is then rubbed off using a metal tomahawk. The digging stick is tapered to a sharp point.
00:37:09 An Australian Aboriginal woman with her finished digging stick.
00:37:14 Women using their digging sticks to obtain the roots of a plant called wirtuka, and the small round bulbs of the nut grass (Cyperus rotundatus).
00:37:47 Close up of the gathered wirtuka roots.
00:37:52 Children dig where the women have previously searched.
00:38:16 A young boy holds out bulbs of nut grass he has collected which he then eats.
00:38:29 The women and children walk back to camp, children playing.
00:38:41 Back at camp, an Australian Aboriginal man cooks the wirtuka roots. Once they are cooked they are left to cool, then dusted, peeled and eaten.
00:39:22 'Preparation of Kurupau seed.'
00:39:27 Jupunja [K40] of the Ngadadjara people with a full bark dish of kurupau seeds. Separating the dust from the seed by winnowing. See: (AA 338/1/14), pp.107-111.
00:41:05 The prepared grain is milled dry on a stone. The rocking motion imparted to the upper stone is characteristic of this district.
00:41:31 The ground kurupau flour is mixed into a paste with water, rolled into a ball and buried in the ashes of the fire. The woman samples the cooked seed cake then shares it among her children.
00:42:17 '[#]36. End of Reel 4. Warburton Range Expedition.'
00:42:23 'University of Adelaide. [#]37. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 5.'
00:42:27 ' Mode of decorating the spear thrower.'
00:42:32 The man carves a kuri kuri or concentric spiral mark on the back of his spear-thrower with the aid of an opossum's lower jaw. Several men sit in the warm sunshine.
00:43:32 'Repairing a broken spear thrower.'
00:43:37 A stone auger is made and used to drill a hole on the edge of the broken spear-thrower. The man makes a sharp point on a piece of quartzite in order to drill the hole. A rotary motion is sufficient to drill through the wood. A stick is passed through and assists in enlarging the hole the drill has made. Kangaroo sinew is chewed in preparation for splicing the broken spear-thrower. The softened sinew is passed several times through and around the hole. A second hold is now drilled. The repaired spear thrower is tested in the spearhold.
00:47:44 An Australian Aboriginal man throws a spear to illustrate the use of the spear thrower. Some footage in slow motion.
00:48:01 End of Warburton Range, Reel 5. [No Intertitle.]
00:48:03 'University of Adelaide [#]38. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 6.'
00:48:11 Women and children sit in a group.
00:48:24 Men sitting in a group holding spears and spear throwers.
00:48:42 Women and children sit in a group.
00:48:49 Men sitting in a group holding spears and spear throwers.
00:48:52 A young boy playing at spearing a bark disc.
00:49:11 A group of men standing holding spears and spear throwers
00:49:47 A man demonstrates how to throw a spear with a spear thrower.
00:50:01 Restricted Content Starts.
00:59:46 Restricted Content Ends.
00:50:46 'End of University of Adelaide [#]38. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 6.'
00:59:02 Restricted Content Starts.
01:00:12 'University of Adelaide [#]39. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 7.'
01:10:51 Restricted Content Ends.
01:10:51 'End of University of Adelaide [#]39. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 7.'
01:10:57 'University of Adelaide [#]40. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 8.'
01:10:57 Restricted Content Starts.
01:21:13 Restricted Content Ends.
01:21:13 'End of University of Adelaide [#]40. Warburton Range Expedition. Reel 8.'
Tribal / language groups recorded during this expedition as noted in the Data Cards (AA 346/4/17)
Tindale Tribes: Mandjindja; Ngadadjara; Pitjandjara.
AIATSIS Tribal / Language Groups: Mandjindja; Ngatatjara; Pitjantjatjara.