Wiradjuri (NSW)

LocationOn the Lachlan River and south from Condobolin to Booligal; at Carrathool, Wagga-Wagga, Cootamundra, Cowra, Parkes, Trundle; east to Gundagai, Boorowa, and Rylstone; at Wellington, Mudgee, Bathurst, and Carcoar; west along Billabong Creek to beyond Mossgiel; southwest to near Hay and Narrandera; south to Howlong on upper Murray; at Albury and east to about Tumbarumba. They visited Yass for ceremonies with the Ngunawal tribe. The northwestern boundary was incorrectly drawn on the 1940 map. Brough Smyth shows that members of the tribe were on the Murray River at Albury, and Howitt (1884) mentions them as on the lower Tumut River but they were usurpers there in earliest white settlement times. Wiradjuri was one of the largest tribal groupings in Australia, with many hordes. Howitt mentions several of these local groups of the tribe, for example-Narrandera (prickly lizard), Cootamundra (Kuta-mundra) from kutamun turtle, Murranbulla or Murring-bulle (maring-bula, two bark canoes), and there were many others. Differences in dialect were evident in some areas, notably around Bathurst and near Albury. Maintenance of a cycle of ceremonies that moved in a ring around the whole tribal area tended to assist tribal coherence despite the large occupied area.
Co-ordinates147°30'E x 33°50'S
Area48,900 sq. m. (97,100 sq. km.)
ReferencesTaylor, 1844; Hale, 1845; Watson in Hale, 1845; Robinson, 1846; Brass plate of King Billy Griffith, 1866; Barlow, 1873; Günther in Ridley, 1873; Ridley, 1873, 1874, 1875; Watson in Ridley, 1873; Lane in Smyth, 1878; Smyth, 1878; Withers in Smyth, 1878; Howitt, 1882, 1884, 1904; Mueller, 1882; Fraser, 1882, 1892; Cameron, 1885, 1899, 1900, 1902; Archer in Curr, 1887; Bathurst Magistrates in Curr, 1887; Bayles in Curr, 1887; Byrne in Curr, 1887; Cameron in Curr, 1887; Curr, 1887; Foley in Curr, 1887; Günther in Curr, 1887; Keightly in Curr, 1887; Pearce in Curr, 1887; Sutton in Curr, 1887; Fraser in Threlkeld, 1892; Günther in Threlkeld, 1892; Mathews, 1895 (Gr. 6471, 6475), 1896 (Gr. 6416, 6428, 6471), 1897 (Gr. 6433, 6434, 6567), 1900 (Gr. 6524), 1901 (Gr. 6432, 6473), 1902 (Gr. 6563), 1904 (Gr. 6574, 6451), 1907 (Gr. 6580, 6423, 6520), 1908 (Gr. 6460), 1909 (Gr. 6441); Maiden, 1896, N--.,G. C., 1896; Lauterer, 1897; Bootle, 1899; Richardson, 1899, 1910; Dulhunty, 1900; Sharpe, 1901; McGuire, 1901; Richards, 1902; Walker, 1904; Parker, 1905; Anonymous, 1906; Mitchell, 1904, 1906; Giglioli, 1911; Bucknell, 1912; Brown, 1918; Gribble, 1922; Radcliffe-Brown, 1930; Tindale, 1940; Berndt, 1947; Capell, 1963.
Alternative NamesWiradyuri, Wiradhuri, Wiraduri, Wiradjeri, Wirra' jerre', Wiradhari, Wirra-dhari, Wirradhurri, Wirra-dthoor-ree, Wirraidyuri, Wirraddury, Wiraijuri, Wirraijuri, Wiiratheri, Wirrathuri, Wiradthuri, Wiradthery, Wirathere, Wiratheri, Wiragere, Wuradjeri, Wiradurei, Wirashurri, Wirradgerry, Weradgerie, Woradgery, Waradgeri, Wiraturai, Wiradurei, Wirrajerry, Weorgery, Woradjera, Wooradgery, Woorajuri, Woradjerg, Weerarthery (said to be Kamilaroi name), Wirotheree, Wiratheri, Wooratheri, Wooratherie, Wiiradurei, Wirra-dthooree, Warradjerrie, Waradgery, Wayradgee, Wirrajeree, Wirradjery, Wir-ra' jer-ree, Wirrai-yarrai, Wirrach-arree, Wiradjwri (typographical error), Warrai Durhai, Wirraidyuri, Kunamildan (of the Thaua, means 'come by night,' i.e., night raiders), Wagga tribe (a horde).
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