Njangamarda (WA)

LocationEighty Mile Beach north of Cape Keraudren to Anna Plains; inland about 200 miles (320 km.).

Divided into two subtribes using different and conflicting arrangements of four-class social organization, preventing intermarriage; a northern, Nabardu or Waljuli, centered on the salty springs inland from Eighty Mile Beach, and a southern Ngapakarnu, centered on [Wa'kali'kali] (Lake Waukarlycarly of maps); together embracing more than twenty-five hordes.

In the preferred terminology the northern coastal Njangamarda are called Kundal and the southern inland ones are Iparuka. In early historical time the Iparuka Njangamarda usurped the territory of the Ngolibardu tribe around Throssell Range. Including this, their territory extends from Rudall River northeast to ['Karbardi] near Swindell Field east of ['Tjandalkuru], (Tindalgoo on maps), thence west to near the eastern border of Warrawagine Station. The Kundal Njangamarda go from this line northwest to ['Manda] (Munda Well on Munro Station) and west to Anna Plains Station, just south of Cape Missiessy, where ['Jawinja], situated beside the present Station homestead, was their northernmost water. Their southwestern boundary lay along the edge of the tableland north of de Grey and Oakover rivers to ['Jalalo] (Ulalling Hills on maps). I have shown the Ngolibardu territory as it was last century. See further notes under Ngolibardu. Division between the northern and southern groups of the Njangamarda hordes runs approximately along a line drawn between Ullaling Hills and Tjandaljuru. In ancestral times Karbardi was a center for both branches of the tribe.

Co-ordinatesNjangamarda Kundal 121°45'E x 20°0'S Njangamarda Iparuka 122°15'E x 21°20'S
Area16,000 sq. m. (41,600 sq. km.) 8,700 sq. m. (22,600 sq. km. excluding Ngolibardu area.)
ReferencesBrown, 1912; Bates, 1914; Capell, 1930, 1956, 1965; Connelly, 1932; Piddington, 1932; Piddington and Pidding-ton, 1932; Tindale, 1940, 1953 MS; Worms, 1954; Petri, 1955, 1956, 1960, 1965; Davidson and McCarthy, 1957; O'Grady, 1957 MS (in letter), 1960, 1964; Australian Encyclopedia, 1958; Odermann, 1958; McCarthy, 1961, Wurm, 1965; Jones, 1965; A.I.A.S. report, 1966; Tindale and George, 1971.
Alternative NamesNjangamada, Nyangamada, Nangamada, Nangamurda, Njangomada (cerebral d fide Petri), Njangumada, Njangumarda, Nangumarda, Njangomada, Nyangumada, Nyangumata, Njadamarda (typographical error), Njanjamarta, Ngapakoreilitja (northern name for southern Njangamarda, 'southern waters people'), Ngardungardu (term used by northern Njangamarda in contrast to the Nanudu [Nganudu] or 'southern people'), Warmala (general derogatory term applied by northern Njangamarda to southern people), Kundal (a name for coastal Njangamarda of the north), Kundal and Waljuli Njangamarda (southern inlanders names for northern coastal Njangamarda), Kularupulu (name applied jointly to coastal Njangamarda and Karadjari), Iparuka (name used by southern hordes), I:baruga, Ngapakarna (another southern Njangamarda name for themselves), Iparuka (of coastal tribespeople for southern hordes), Ibarga, Ibarrga, Ibargo.
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