: Desert plateau south of the Fitzroy and Christmas Creek valleys from Noonkanbah, n.n. ['Kunkadea], east to Cummins Range; south on the line of the Canning Stock Route to Well 47, n.n. ['Kardalapuru], west from there to about 124°50'E; southwesternmost water used is Ngokanitjardu (unidentified but near 124°50'E x 20°30'S; see reference to this term also under Mangala tribe). In the south by traveling along tribal boundaries they met the Wanman at Munggakulu (perhaps the Adverse Well on maps). Their western boundary ran due north to Mount Fenton. The known Karrage Well, n.n. ['Karakan] is the first water west beyond their territory in that of the Njikena. About four generations ago they usurped some former Konejandi territory, the open downs on the north side of Christmas Creek between Mellon Spring and Landrigan Cliffs. This is shown on the map as their boundary. The term Tjiwaling is used for this tribe mostly by western neighbors and is acceptable only to western members of the tribe; those in the east prefer Walmadjari or speak of themselves as belonging to the 'Wanaeka side' in contrast to those of the 'Tjiwaling side.' Only in dry times did they descend from the George Ranges ['Kalji:da] to get water in the Fitzroy River.
Those who took over the former Konejandi area are called Ngainan. Their main water was south of Fitzroy Crossing at ['Tjandu], a billabong, not located; this group traveled in the desert region southwest of Christmas Creek. The easternmost horde mixed with the Nabijangkadjara hordes of the Kokatja and traveled to Billiluna Station and the vicinity of Gregory Lake. They also went south to Koninara (Godfrey Tank). Indications are that formerly their territory extended south to ['Kuljai], Canning Stock Route, Well 42, but the Nangatara had moved in there at least two generations ago. Only Walmadjari men taken on journeys during their initiation had ever been there.
C. Berndt (1965:13) implies this is a tribe of the west-central Northern Territory. Her data is based on displaced persons transported by Europeans.
Co-ordinates: 125°45'E x 19°25'S
Area: 15,000 sq. m. (39,000 sq. km.)
References: Mathews, 1900 (Gr. 6447), 1901 (Gr. 6549); Elkin, 1933; Kaberry, 1937, 1939; Worms, 1940, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1954, MS; Capell, 1940, 1952, 1956; Berndt, 1950, 1959, 1964; Petri, 1950, 1955; Tindale, 1953 MS, 1956; Birdsell, 1954 MS; Meggitt, 1955; Australian Encyclopedia, 1958; C. Berndt, 1965.
Alternative Names: Walmajari (valid eastern pronunciation), Walmadjeri, Walmade're, Wolmadjari, Walmajeri, Wolmaijari, Wulumari, Wolmeri, Wolmera, Walmaharri, Walmaharry, Wolmaharry, Waringari Pundur ('cannibal men' name given by Kokatja), Walmajai (Njikena pronunciation), Wulumarai, Wanmadjari, Tjiwaling (Mangala name), Djualin, Tjiwali, Tjiwalindja, Djiwalinja, Djuwali, Djiwalinj, Ngadjukura (language name), Pitangu (derogatory Kokatja name), Wanaeka, Waneiga, Ngainan (Birdsell in 1954 obtained this from measured natives nos. R1535 and R1541 of Christmas Creek as name of 'light Walmadjari' who were said to belong to an area halfway between Christmas Creek and Billiluna), Nganang, Warmala (general term applied to several Western Desert tribes).