Pangkala (SA)

LocationEast side of Lake Torrens south of Edeowie and west of Hookina and Port Augusta; west of Lake Torrens to Island Lagoon and Yardea; at Woorakimba, Hesso, Yudnapinna, Gawler Ranges; south to Kimba, Darke Peak, Cleve, and Franklin Harbour. Two divisions within the tribe were recognized, one the Wartabanggala, living north of Port Augusta and extending to Ogden Hill and almost to Quorn and Beltana; the other the Malkaripangala (note differing pronunciations in the tribal part of name). The latter ranged down the western side of Spencer Gulf. Both divisions practiced circumcision and subincision as male rites of initiation. Prehistoric and protohistoric pressure from the Kokata was modifying their northern boundary, causing a shift of their southern limits also between Port Augusta and the Gawler Ranges down toward Franklin Harbour. In their last years they ventured as far south as Tumby Bay to obtain whipstick mallee wood for spears (Hossfeld). After white settlement they lived around Port Lincoln where both Schürmann and Wilhelmi studied them.
Co-ordinates136°55'E x 32°30'S
Area17,500 sq. m. (45,500 sq. km.)
ReferencesSchürmann, 1844, 1846, 1879; Angas, 1847; Wilhelmi, 1860; Bryant in Taplin, 1879; Mueller, 1882; Andrews, 1883; Green in Curr, 1886; Sawers in Curr, 1886; East, 1889; Mathews, 1900 (Gr. 6524, 6448, 6491), 1904 (Gr. 6451), 1905 (Gr. 6454); Howitt, 1904; Eylmann, 1908; Strehlow, 1910; Stirling, 1914; Black, 1917; Basedow, 1925; Hale and Tindale, 1925; Hossfeld, 1927 MS; Elkin, 1931; Davidson, 1938; Cleland and Johnston, 1939; Tindale, 1940 and MS; Wurm, 1963; O'Grady et al., 1969.
Alternative NamesBanggala (valid alternative pronunciation), Bahngala, Pankalla, Parkalla (typographical error), Parnkalla, Parn-kal-la, Parnkala, Punkalla, Bangala, Bungela, Pankarla, Punkirla, Bungeha (probably misreading of Bungela), Kortabina (place name), Willeuroo (basic meaning 'west,' or 'westerner'), Arkaba-tura (men of Arkaba, a place in the northeast corner of tribal territory where they met Jadliaura people), Wanbirujurari ('men of the seacoast'; said of the southern hordes by those in the north), Willara, Kooapudna (horde around Franklin Harbour), Kooapidna.
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